Economia umanistica: il manifesto di Valerio Malvezzi

Redatto da Oltre la Linea.

«L’economia umanistica è la sfida di questo secolo che seppellirà, come un incidente storico, quella capitalistica e quel pensiero neoliberista che ci racconta da decenni come il pianeta sia guidato dai mercati, mentre al contrario il mondo è guidato dalla libera mente dell’uomo. Quella mente, da secoli, si chiama Morale».

Parole accorate, viscerali, che vengono dal profondo del cuore di un uomo consapevole, prima ancora che economista. Di un cittadino italiano che sta vedendo i suoi compatrioti, e non solo loro, soffrire, a causa di un sistema economico e sociale perverso. Un sistema che sta strozzando l’esistenza in favore del profitto, che sta distruggendo il lavoro per rimpinguare il capitale, che sta gonfiando a dismisura il fasullo ed al contempo sta distruggendo senza remore il reale.

Quello di cui sopra è il testo che Valerio Malvezzi ha chiesto di firmare per aderire al suo Manifesto per un’Economia Umanistica, esposta magistralmente e nondimeno con adamantine sincerità e passione nella sua “Lettera ai potenti della terra”. Si tratta di un discorso pronunciato al convegno “Spread, banche e sicurezza nazionale nel contesto europeo” (tenutosi al Senato della Repubblica il 29 gennaio 2019 su iniziativa del MoVimento 5 Stelle). Non certo una filippica tecnica, anzi al contrario un’epistola energica, robusta, finanche di arcana saggezza e di sempiterno vigore.

La sua requisitoria è spietata, l’elegante e diretta invettiva ai signori del mondo, agli speculatori, agli uomini dell’alta finanza non lascia spazio ad interpretazioni, non concede manovre a coloro che egli cita sul banco degli imputati. L’accusa è quella di sfruttare (e corroborare) un sistema economico malato, che essi hanno deliberatamente modificato a loro favore, secondo una pianificazione vecchia di decenni. Questo al solo scopo di arricchirsi in maniera spropositata, condannando la povera gente ad un’esistenza di «lacrime e sangue», di «sacrifici» esacerbanti e ricompense misere, nullificanti.

Questo è un altro punto centrale che egli cita e tocca: le parole. Questi signori, mai visibili e sempre nascosti (poiché tale è il vero potere nella storia: intangibile e pervasivo), hanno mistificato il linguaggio, hanno incusso timori e paure attraverso vocaboli di terrore. Uno di quelli fondamentali è la parola “debito”, a cui è associata la connotazione cristiana della colpa.

Questi signori hanno inventato tecnicismi per non essere compresi ed agire indisturbati. Mentendo spudoratamente, e senza vergogna alcuna, sulle loro reali intenzioni, hanno adoperato i più svariati grimaldelli per scassinare le porte del processo democratico e pervertirne il significato ed i dettami, andando a demolire il rapporto orizzontale tra le persone. Sotto la libertà, si cela la schiavitù. Sotto al processo di globalizzazione, si cela quello di glebalizzazione.

Il cuore del problema è quindi di tipo politico, nel senso più squisitamente greco del termine. Da Aristotele ad Adam Smith, vi è sempre stato un determinato ordine delle cose. Quello nel quale la finanza si trovava all’ultimo gradino della piramide, poiché essa veniva condotta dall’economia, a sua volta guidata dalla politica, che sottostava ai precetti della filosofia morale.

Oggi, la piramide è rovesciata, e gli effetti sono chiari, lampanti e dannatamente drammatici. Ma essa non è irrimediabile, non è incontrovertibile, non è definitiva. Poiché, con semplicità finanche banale ma del tutto innegabile, sotto a tutto si trova una ed una sola cosa, il motore (im)mobile che tutto muove: l’Uomo.

L’Uomo può risolvere le ingiustizie, può colmare le lacune, può fattualmente compiere qualunque miracolo egli desideri, racchiuso nello scrigno delle sue infinite possibilità. Per farlo, però, deve aprire la propria mente, deve squarciare il Velo di Maya che lo turlupina, inganna e raggira. Deve acquisire consapevolezza e prendere coscienza di essere la vera scaturigine dell’azione: nessun meccanismo di umana creazione è eterno, per quanto si tenda a cristallizzarlo.

Così, il modello economico neoliberista – mercantilista, neo-schiavista, neo-feudale -, che distrugge i diritti sociali ed edulcora una realtà di sottomissione con l’esasperazione di quelli civili, non è per sempre. Conoscendolo, si può sconfiggerlo: ambendo al bene collettivo ed alla cooperazione, si può fare del bene e cooperare.

L’incriminazione di Malvezzi prosegue con accurata ma tumultuosa raffinatezza, che combina biasimo per i padroni e speranza per il popolo: «Signori privati, voi oscuri demiurghi di sventura, voi Dioscuri della povertà, voi saccenti profeti di tristezza: voi avete ignorato per vostro tornaconto il pianto di un popolo per anni, e lo ignorerete ancora, ma io sono qui a dirvi, ad annunciarvi, come ultimo dei cittadini, che il popolo sta cominciando a capire e che, quando il popolo si muove, le cose cambiano; e per questo semplice fatto cambieranno, che a voi piaccia, oppure no».

Questo sistema a-morale e privo di scrupoli, ingannatore e rapace contro le sue vittime – anziani senza pensione, imprenditori suicidi, famiglie disgregate, giovani emigrati, disperati senza assistenza -, ha fatto credere che i soldi siano ricchezza. Tutto ciò è falso.

La moneta è solo e soltanto uno strumento: la vera ricchezza sta nel lavoro dei cittadini, nelle mani degli operai, nella testa degli ingegneri, negli strumenti dei contadini, nella buona volontà degli insegnanti. E se la possibilità di creare dal nulla questo strumento è nelle mani di pochi, che non lo dispensano per creare occupazione e benessere, ma che lo trattengono per creare povertà e disoccupazione, allora tutto ciò è semplicemente sbagliato.

La vera forza, per l’Italia, potrà essere quella della giustizia, della ragione, della consapevolezza e – perché no? – quella della memoria. Perché la cultura, la storia, la Bellezza non sono comprabili, non sono mercanteggiabili. L’Italia ha i mezzi, le capacità e le forze non unicamente per rialzare la china, ma anche e soprattutto per non smettere mai più di camminare a testa alta: la rivoluzione, prima ancora che economica e politica, dovrà essere culturale.

Così si potrà capovolgere la piramide, ci si potrà preoccupare non più di decimali, ma finalmente di concreto e tangibile benessere delle persone. Dice Malvezzi: «Il cuore del documento di questo manifesto per l’economia umanistica deve essere l’uomo al posto del mercato, il lavoro in luogo del capitale, la produzione reale in sostituzione dei pezzi di carta». Devono essere la morale e la politica sopra all’economia ed alla finanza. Perché sono umane creazioni e, se tutto ciò che è umano non ci è alieno (Terenzio), allora su di esse abbiamo potere e sovranità per indirizzarle al Bene, alla Collettività, al Bene della Collettività.

Lo disse anche Robert Kennedy nel lontano 1968, in un commovente e profondo discorso sul PIL all’Università del Kansas: «Con troppa insistenza e troppo a lungo sembra che abbiamo rinunciato alla nostra eccellenza personale ed ai valori della nostra comunità, in favore del mero accumulo di beni terreni. […] Eppure il PIL non tiene conto della salute dei nostri ragazzi, della qualità della loro educazione e dell’allegria dei loro giochi. Non include la bellezza delle nostre poesie o la solidità dei nostri matrimoni, l’acume dei nostri dibattiti politici, l’integrità dei nostri funzionari pubblici. Non misura né il nostro ingegno, né il nostro coraggio, né la nostra saggezza, né la nostra conoscenza, né la nostra passione, né la fedeltà alla nostra patria. In poche parole, misura tutto, eccetto ciò che rende la vita degna di essere vissuta».

Una volta preso coscienza dell’inganno, lo si potrà scoperchiare, capovolgere, distruggendone le fondamenta e ricostruendo tutto. La ricostruzione dovrà partire dalle menti degli uomini, da troppo tempo ingabbiate nella cornice di un sistema che ha sottratto loro la speranza e la facoltà di sognare.

Non resta quindi che cercare la verità, capire gli ingranaggi del reale, punire le menzogne e – come conclude magnificamente Valerio Malvezzi – tornare a vivere: «Quando, sul braciere di un manifesto per l’economia dell’uomo, saranno incenerite le carte che ci tengono in catene sotto quelle del capitale, sarà un giorno di giubilo. Io sogno che quel giorno nasca qui, da un piccolo Paese che tanto contributo ha dato nei millenni al pensiero dell’uomo. Io non so se vedrò da vivo quel giorno. So però che quello sarà un giorno radioso non soltanto per gli italiani che avranno insegnato al mondo ad alzarsi in piedi. Quello sarà un attimo, indelebile, nella storia eterna dell’umanità».

(di Lorenzo Franzoni)

L'articolo Economia umanistica: il manifesto di Valerio Malvezzi proviene da Oltre la Linea.

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