Il periodo dei torbidi in Russia: guerre, tradimenti e coraggio



Redatto da Oltre la Linea.

Raramente nella storia europea si è assistito ad un’epoca così densa di avvenimenti e di stravolgimenti come quella che, in soli quindici anni, costituisce l’interregno tra la morte di Fëdor I Rjurik (figlio di Ivan il Terribile) e Mihajl III Romanov.

Un quindicennio di guerre, rivoluzioni, congiure e messianismi spesso grotteschi, che in Russia viene da sempre definito il periodo dei torbidi, e che nei secoli è stata interpretato dagli storici in maniera contrastante. Ma l’aspetto senza dubbio più peculiare, in questo turbinìo di vicende, è quello dell’avvicendarsi di vari pretendenti al trono che millantavano di essere figli o parenti creduti scomparsi degli zar della dinastia Rjurik.

Tra questi, spiccano i falsi Demetrii, le cui gesta sono state dettagliatamente raccontate nel 1954 in un’opera di Prosper Mérimée, tradotta da Tommaso Landolfi.

La data d’inizio del periodo dei torbidi è convenzionalmente fissata al 7 gennaio 1598, quando lo zar Fëdor I muore senza lasciare eredi. Con lui si spegne la dinastia dei Rjurik, che aveva regnato sul popolo russo per sette secoli. Debole di corpo e di spirito, più affine agli studi teologici che alla politica, Fëdor aveva ereditato una Russia mutata fin nel profondo dalle riforme attuate dal padre.

Affidatosi quasi completamente ai propri consiglieri, i boiari di corte, aveva però avuto il merito di creare il patriarcato di Mosca e rendere così la Chiesa russa indipendente. Il clero ortodosso avrà un ruolo cruciale nel successivo svolgersi degli eventi.

L’ascesa di Boris Godunov

Alla morte di Fëdor, è Boris Godunov a sedersi sul trono degli zar. Proveniente dalla piccola nobiltà mongola, praticamente analfabeta, Godunov era riuscito negli anni a tessere un’intricata rete di relazioni politiche, diplomatiche e matrimoniali fino a diventare l’uomo più potente della corte moscovita. Questa successione atipica, però, viene vista con sospetto da larga parte della popolazione, sobillata anche dall’aristocrazia nemica di Godunov.

La Russia era del resto reduce dalle riforme radicali dell’epoca di Ivan il Terribile, che avevano mutato financo il tessuto sociale del Paese. Le continue spinte espansionistiche nel sud-est, oltre ad aver stremato economicamente tutte le classi sociali, avevano portato il Governo ad incamerare nelle fila della piccola nobiltà di servizio anche popolazioni non convertite, che si ritrovavano improvvisamente inglobate in una struttura sociale straniera. Inoltre, l’espansionismo aveva portato nuovi territori nell’alveo dello Stato, e la volontà di colonizzare queste zone trasferendo i contadini russi cozzava con gli interessi dei proprietari terrieri, che vedevano le loro proprietà indebolirsi e spopolarsi.

Di fronte alla minaccia di una rivolta del latifondo, il Governo fu costretto a fare marcia indietro, vincolando i contadini al territorio natìo, e gettando così solide basi per la nascita della servitù della gleba. Non furono pochi quelli che, per non piegarsi a questa realtà, ingrossarono le file delle milizie armate cosacche che imperversavano nel sud del Paese.

I falsi Demetri

Fu forse la carestia del 1601-1603 a scatenare i veri e propri torbidi. L’anima profondamente religiosa del contadino russo non poteva non scorgere, di fronte a catastrofi come le 100mila persone morte di fame e malattia nella sola Capitale, un castigo divino per i propri peccati. È a questo punto, infatti, che fa la sua comparsa il primo falso Demetrio.

Demetrio, o per meglio dire il vero Demetrio, era l’ultimo figlio di Ivan il Terribile, confinato dalla nascita in un villaggio sul Volga perché nato dalla settima moglie – e quindi non riconoscibile dalla Chiesa ortodossa. Fu trovato sgozzato in un cortile a nove anni, nel 1591, il che aveva causato una rivolta da parte della popolazione locale, secondo cui il responsabile sarebbe stato proprio Boris Godunov, per le cui ambizioni il bambino poteva rappresentare un serio ostacolo.

Non sono pochi gli storici che condividono questa ipotesi, in primo luogo Nikolaj Karamzin, autore della monumentale Storia dello Stato russo pubblicata nel primo quarto del XIX secolo, e poi Aleksandr Puškin e Modest Musorgskij, nelle rispettive opere intitolate entrambe Boris Godunov. Tuttavia, per molti storici appare più probabile la versione ufficiale:  il bimbo si sarebbe ferito da solo, durante uno dei suoi frequenti attacchi epilettici.

Qualunque sia la verità, quando un ragazzo poco più che ventenne si presenta alla corte del re di Polonia Sigismondo III asserendo di essere il redivivo Demetrio, scampato all’omicidio e messo in salvo dai gesuiti, non sono in pochi a credergli. Certo, le opportunità politiche e la brama verso il traballante trono di Mosca hanno una parte importantissima nella fiducia che gli viene accordata dall’aristocrazia polacca, ma il giovane si comporta davvero come il figlio di uno zar – e probabilmente persino lui è convinto di esserlo.

La vittoria del 1605 contro Godunov

Ben educato, erudito, parla fluentemente il russo e il polacco, cavalca con naturalezza e mostra ampie conoscenze letterarie e teologiche. In sovrappiù, ha una spiccata somiglianza con lo scomparso zarevic.

Colui che si fa chiamare Demetrio diventa in breve tempo un favorito della corte di Cracovia, che progetta di usarlo per conquistare l’odiato vicino orientale. Lui, da parte sua, promette di diventare il paladino del cattolicesimo in Russia, e stringe fidanzamento con Marina Mniszech, figlia del voivoda di Sandomir. Ottiene l’appoggio di alcuni boiardi russi avversi a Godunov e, alla testa di un esercito di 1500 soldati, si mette in marcia verso Mosca.

Subisce ripetute sconfitte da parte dell’esercito dello zar, ma i suoi seguaci continuano ad apparire da ogni parte del Paese, convinti che il figlio di Ivan sia tornato per riportare sul trono la santa dinastia Rjurik. E la sua vittoria definitiva, effettivamente, sembra quasi un inequivocabile segno del destino: all’improvviso, nell’aprile 1605, Boris Godunov muore, lasciando il principato in mano all’inesperto figlio quindicenne Fëdor II.

A questo punto le trame di palazzo si infittiscono bruscamente, e il giovane zar viene ucciso dopo soli due mesi dall’incoronazione. I boiari e l’esercito passano dalla parte di Demetrio, che può entrare trionfalmente a Mosca. Il suo regno dura però solo 10 mesi: da un lato, l’alleanza con la Polonia e la fede cattolica della fidanzata (ora moglie) Marina provocano un moto di disprezzo nel popolo russo; dall’altro, Demetrio si inimica lo stesso re Sigismondo disattendendo la promessa di convertire la Russia al cattolicesimo.

Fine del primo Demetrio, arrivo del secondo

Il potere sembra infatti avergli dato alla testa, tanto che ad una popolazione stremata propone l’impresa titanica – e forse impossibile – di espellere i Turchi dall’Europa. Gli eventi precipiteranno al punto che Demetrio, o chiunque egli fosse, viene ucciso e smembrato, e i suoi resti, bruciati, sparati con un cannone rivolto verso la Polonia. Il potere viene quindi preso dal boiaro Vasilij Šuskij, Basilio IV.

Il regno di Basilio durerà quattro anni, e sarà percorso da rivolte sociali ancora più profonde di quelle dell’epoca Godunov. C’è qui la vicenda della ribellione guidata dal servo della gleba Ivan Bolotnikov, che agli occhi degli storici sovietici rappresenterà quasi un’antesignana della rivolta di classe, dato che le masse contadine non venivano spinte alla lotta per gli interessi dei boiari, ma in nome dei propri diritti.

È interessante notare come Bolotnikov avanzò un altro pretendente al trono intorno a cui adunare il popolo: questo però si faceva chiamare Pietro, e millantava di essere figlio di Fëdor I, nonostante quest’ultimo non avesse mai avuto figli. La cosa non deve però sorprendere: in un’epoca di mancanza di certezze gli usurpatori spuntavano fuori in gran quantità, nella speranza di poter approfittare delle crepe sempre più profonde all’interno della struttura governativa.

È poco dopo la fine della rivolta di Bolotnikov che viene fuori il secondo falso Demetrio. Nel caos generale, questi riesce a raccogliere un piccolo esercito e a conquistare l’area sud-occidentale del regno, appoggiato dai cosacchi, dai tatari, dai principi lituani e, tacitamente, dallo stesso sovrano polacco. Si mette quindi in marcia verso Mosca alla testa di 27mila soldati, ma, non riuscendo ad espugnare la città, si stabilisce poco distante, a Tušino, dove instaura una corte parallela con i suoi boiari e persino un proprio patriarca.

L’ingloriosa fine del secondo Demetrio

Una situazione che dura due anni, finché, nel 1609, sconfitto da Basilio grazie all’aiuto degli Svedesi, Demetrio viene scacciato dalla città. I nobili di corte di Tušino, però, chiedono a re Sigismondo di permettere che suo figlio quindicenne, Ladislao, diventi zar di Russia. Il sovrano di Cracovia acconsente, e Ladislao – che non varcherà mai il confine russo per tutta la propria vita – porterà formalmente il titolo di zar per 25 anni.

La vittoria sul secondo falso Demetrio è l’ultima impresa di Basilio: l’anno successivo viene deposto dai propri boiari, che assumono il controllo del governo moscovita e avanzano a Cracovia grossomodo le stesse proposte fatte dai nobili di Tušino, compresa la condizione irrinunciabile della conversione all’ortodossia. Inaspettatamente, il re Sigismondo rifiuta, convinto di poter prendere Mosca con le armi senza doversi piegare alle richieste dei russi.

È qui che fa la sua ricomparsa il secondo falso Demetrio, che contemporaneamente ai polacchi si avvia verso Mosca alla testa di un piccolo esercito, cercando di sobillare il popolo contro l’invasore. Andrà però incontro ad una fine ingloriosa: verrà ucciso dal capo delle sue guardie, un mongolo convertito, durante una banale lite per motivi personali

L’ultimo Demetrio: iniziale trionfo e successiva caduta

Gli ultimi anni del periodo dei torbidi vedono la comparsa di un terzo falso Demetrio, che si palesa a Ivangorod nel 1611. La città è assediata dagli Svedesi, di nuovo in armi contro i Russi dopo che questi avevano tradito l’alleanza stretta ai tempi di Basilio e avevano giurato fedeltà all’odiato sovrano di Cracovia. In qualche modo, questo ennesimo usurpatore riesce a spezzare l’assedio, conquistare la regione di Pskov (vicino all’attuale San Pietroburgo) e insediarsi al Cremlino, dove viene proclamato zar in una Mosca dilaniata da quindici anni di disastri. Dura un anno; dopodiché viene catturato e sommariamente giustiziato.

L’insicurezza e l’instabilità del periodo dei torbidi finiscono soprattutto grazie al ruolo giocato dalla Chiesa ortodossa. Il patriarca Ermogene dichiara sciolto il giuramento di fedeltà tra i russi e Ladislao, e invia emissari in ogni città per radunare un esercito e riconquistare la Capitale, ormai in mano a Polacchi e Lituani.

Grazie al mai spezzato legame tra popolazione e clero, l’entusiastica risposta di massa permette la riconquista della città e il ristabilirsi dell’ordine con l’elezione, nel 1613, di Mihajl III. Sorge così l’astro della dinastia Romanov, che proietterà la Russia in una dimensione pienamente europea.

(di Roberto Bargone)

L’articolo Il periodo dei torbidi in Russia: guerre, tradimenti e coraggio proviene da Oltre la Linea.



Guarda l’ariticolo completo su oltrelalinea.news

179 thoughts on “Il periodo dei torbidi in Russia: guerre, tradimenti e coraggio

  1. I am the business owner of JustCBD brand (justcbdstore.com) and I’m presently seeking to expand my wholesale side of business. It would be great if someone at targetdomain share some guidance 🙂 I considered that the most effective way to accomplish this would be to talk to vape shops and cbd retailers. I was really hoping if someone could recommend a qualified web site where I can get Vape Shop B2B Database I am presently reviewing creativebeartech.com, theeliquidboutique.co.uk and wowitloveithaveit.com. Not sure which one would be the best choice and would appreciate any assistance on this. Or would it be simpler for me to scrape my own leads? Suggestions?

  2. Thanks for another informative site. The place else could I
    am getting that type of info written in such an ideal approach?

    I’ve a project that I’m just now operating on, and I’ve been on the look out
    for such information.

  3. Hello there! This post couldn’t be written much better!
    Looking at this article reminds me of my previous roommate!

    He always kept talking about this. I will forward
    this information to him. Fairly certain he’ll have a good read.

    Many thanks for sharing! asmr 0mniartist

  4. hey there and thank you for your info – I have certainly picked up
    something new from right here. I did however
    expertise several technical points using this website, since I experienced to reload the web site
    a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly.
    I had been wondering if your web host is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your
    placement in google and could damage your high-quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Well I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much more of your respective interesting content.
    Ensure that you update this again very soon. 0mniartist asmr

  5. Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask.

    Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa?

    My website addresses a lot of the same subjects as
    yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you happen to be interested feel free to shoot me an email.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Superb blog by the
    way! asmr 0mniartist

  6. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is required to get
    setup? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?

    I’m not very web savvy so I’m not 100% sure. Any suggestions or advice
    would be greatly appreciated. Thanks

  7. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good.
    I don’t know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you aren’t already 😉
    Cheers!

  8. I am really impressed with your writing skills
    as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or
    did you modify it yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare
    to see a great blog like this one these days.

  9. What’s up everyone, it’s my first go to see at this web page, and paragraph is
    really fruitful for me, keep up posting these articles or reviews.

  10. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing around your blog posts.
    In any case I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  11. When someone writes an paragraph he/she keeps the
    thought of a user in his/her brain that how a user can understand it.
    Therefore that’s why this post is perfect. Thanks!

  12. scoliosis
    I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your site.
    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable
    for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme?

    Outstanding work! scoliosis

  13. scoliosis
    Having read this I believed it was very enlightening. I appreciate you finding the time and
    energy to put this informative article together.
    I once again find myself personally spending a significant amount of time both
    reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile!
    scoliosis

  14. free dating sites
    I seriously love your site.. Very nice colors & theme.
    Did you develop this web site yourself? Please
    reply back as I’m wanting to create my own personal site and want to learn where
    you got this from or exactly what the theme is called.
    Appreciate it! free dating sites

  15. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my blog thus i got here to
    return the prefer?.I’m trying to in finding issues to enhance my
    web site!I suppose its good enough to make use of some of your concepts!!

  16. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site.

    I am hoping to check out the same high-grade content from you in the
    future as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my very own website now 😉

  17. I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your blog.
    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here
    and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your
    theme? Fantastic work!

  18. Hey There. I found your blog the use of msn. This is an extremely neatly written article.
    I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to learn extra of your helpful info.

    Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.

  19. I was wondering if you ever considered changing the layout of your
    blog? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content
    so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or
    two images. Maybe you could space it out better?

  20. Hello superb blog! Does running a blog similar to
    this require a lot of work? I have very little knowledge of coding however
    I had been hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyways,
    if you have any suggestions or techniques for new blog owners please share.
    I know this is off topic nevertheless I simply wanted to ask.
    Thanks a lot!

  21. I’m curious to find out what blog system you happen to be
    using? I’m having some minor security issues with my latest website and I would like to find something
    more risk-free. Do you have any suggestions?

  22. Hi, I do think this is a great website. I stumbledupon it 😉 I’m going to return yet
    again since i have book marked it. Money and freedom is the
    best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.

  23. Just wish to say your article is as astounding. The clearness in your post is simply great and
    i can assume you are an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow
    me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please continue the rewarding work.

  24. Hey there, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine but when opening
    in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to
    give you a quick heads up! Other then that, excellent blog!

  25. Neat blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it
    from somewhere? A design like yours with a few simple tweeks would really make my blog stand
    out. Please let me know where you got your design. Kudos

  26. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a colleague who was conducting a little research on this.
    And he in fact bought me dinner due to the fact that I discovered it for him…
    lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this topic here on your blog.

  27. Hi! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers?
    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve
    worked hard on. Any suggestions?

  28. I’m not sure where you’re getting your info, but great topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.
    Thanks for great info I was looking for this information for my mission.

  29. I simply could not leave your website prior to suggesting that I
    really enjoyed the usual information a person provide
    for your visitors? Is gonna be back incessantly to check up on new
    posts

  30. Hello there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a
    captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having trouble
    finding one? Thanks a lot!

  31. I blog often and I really appreciate your content.
    The article has truly peaked my interest. I am going to book mark
    your website and keep checking for new details about once a week.
    I opted in for your Feed as well.

  32. Hello this is kind of of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually
    code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding
    know-how so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience.
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  33. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this
    board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out much.
    I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

    My web-site; Tressa

  34. Spot on with this write-up, I actually feel this amazing site needs much more
    attention. I’ll probably be returning to read more, thanks for the advice!

  35. Excellent website you have here but I was curious if you knew of any
    community forums that cover the same topics discussed
    in this article? I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get suggestions from other
    knowledgeable people that share the same interest.
    If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Appreciate it!

  36. Thank you, I’ve just been searching for information about this
    subject for a while and yours is the greatest I’ve found out so far.

    However, what in regards to the conclusion? Are you sure
    concerning the source?

  37. When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I
    get three e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove
    me from that service? Thank you!

  38. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the
    future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this post
    and if I could I desire to suggest you few interesting things or advice.

    Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I wish to read more things about it!

  39. Hello, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.

    When I look at your website in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, very good blog!

  40. Hey would you mind stating which blog platform you’re working with?

    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a tough time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.

    The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m
    looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

  41. Excellent blog here! Also your website loads up fast! What host are you using?
    Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded
    up as fast as yours lol

  42. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed!
    Very helpful information specially the last part 🙂 I care for such
    information a lot. I was seeking this particular
    information for a long time. Thank you and good luck.

  43. I all the time used to study article in news papers
    but now as I am a user of net thus from now I am
    using net for articles, thanks to web.

  44. I loved as much as you will receive carried
    out right here. The sketch is tasteful, your authored material stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get got an shakiness over that you wish be delivering the following.

    unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as exactly the
    same nearly very often inside case you shield
    this increase.

  45. Hi there! I know this is sort of off-topic but I had to ask.
    Does building a well-established website like yours
    take a lot of work? I’m brand new to blogging but I do write in my diary daily.

    I’d like to start a blog so I will be able to share my experience and views
    online. Please let me know if you have any suggestions or tips for brand new aspiring blog
    owners. Appreciate it!

  46. You actually make it seem so easy along with your presentation however I
    to find this matter to be really something which I think I might by no means understand.

    It seems too complicated and extremely wide for me.
    I am having a look forward to your subsequent put up, I
    will try to get the hold of it!

    Have a look at my web page True Burn Keto Cost

  47. Hey! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new apple iphone!
    Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward
    to all your posts! Keep up the outstanding work!

  48. I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this
    sort of area . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this website.
    Reading this information So i am happy to express that I have a very just
    right uncanny feeling I found out just what I needed.
    I such a lot definitely will make sure to do not fail to remember this site
    and provides it a glance regularly.

  49. Good day! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and
    starting a new project in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us useful information to work on. You have done a extraordinary
    job!

  50. Simply wish to say your article is as astounding. The
    clarity in your post is just nice and i could assume
    you are an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to
    keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable work.

  51. Wow, superb weblog structure! How lengthy have you been blogging for?
    you make blogging glance easy. The entire look
    of your web site is excellent, as well as the content![X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]I simply could not leave your
    web site prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the standard info a person supply
    on your guests? Is going to be again continuously in order to investigate cross-check new posts.

    Feel free to visit my web-site; Ketorol Reviews

  52. Keep up the fantastic piece of work, I read few articles on this
    internet site and I conceive that your blog is very interesting and has bands of wonderful info.

    Also visit my homepage … Infinuity CBD Gummies Reviews (Meagan)

  53. I’ve read some good stuff here. Definitely price bookmarking for revisiting.

    I wonder how so much effort you place to create this sort of fantastic informative web site.

  54. I wanted to thank you for this good read!! I certainly loved every little bit of
    it. I’ve got you saved as a favorite to look at new stuff you post…

  55. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added”
    checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get several e-mails with the same comment.

    Is there any way you can remove people from that
    service? Appreciate it!

  56. When some one searches for his necessary thing, therefore he/she wants to be available that in detail, therefore that thing is maintained over here.

  57. Undeniably imagine that that you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be at the internet
    the easiest thing to take note of. I say
    to you, I certainly get annoyed whilst other people
    think about worries that they plainly do not realize about.
    You controlled to hit the nail upon the highest and also
    defined out the whole thing with no need side effect , people could take
    a signal. Will probably be again to get more. Thanks!

    Here is my web-site: Infinuity CBD Reviews (http://www.meteoritegarden.com)

  58. Excellent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just too great.
    I really like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it.
    You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it wise.

    I cant wait to read much more from you. This is really a tremendous
    site.

    Here is my website Pure Keto Burn (vip5.moisait2021.ru)

  59. I think this is one of the so much important info for me.
    And i am glad reading your article. But should commentary on few normal things, The
    web site taste is wonderful, the articles is really great :
    D. Excellent job, cheers.

    Feel free to surf to my blog post VikingXL Keto

  60. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to
    your blog? My blog is in the exact same niche as yours and my visitors would really benefit
    from a lot of the information you provide here. Please let me know if
    this alright with you. Thank you!

  61. When I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments
    are added- checkbox and from now on each time a comment is added
    I recieve four emails with the exact same comment.
    There has to be a means you are able to remove me from that service?

    Thank you!

  62. I was recommended this web site by way of my cousin. I am no longer sure whether this submit is written by means of him as no one else understand such certain about
    my problem. You’re amazing! Thank you!

  63. I think this is among the most vital info for me. And i’m glad
    reading your article. But should remark on few general things, The web
    site style is wonderful, the articles is really great :
    D. Good job, cheers

  64. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite
    justification appeared to be on the internet the simplest thing to be
    aware of. I say to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they
    just do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the
    top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal.

    Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  65. Please let me know if you’re looking for a writer for your
    site. You have some really good posts and I
    believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the
    load off, I’d really like to write some material for your blog in exchange
    for a link back to mine. Please blast me an e-mail if interested.
    Kudos!

  66. Excellent goods from you, man. I have take into accout your stuff prior to
    and you’re simply extremely excellent. I really like what you’ve obtained here, certainly like what you’re saying
    and the way in which through which you say it.

    You make it entertaining and you continue to take care of to stay
    it sensible. I cant wait to read far more from you.

    That is actually a great web site.

  67. Nice blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast!
    What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate
    link to your host? I wish my website loaded up as
    quickly as yours lol

  68. Definitely consider that that you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the net the
    simplest thing to keep in mind of. I say to you, I definitely get irked at the same
    time as people consider worries that they just
    do not know about. You controlled to hit the nail upon the highest as well as defined out the entire thing with
    no need side effect , folks can take a signal.

    Will probably be again to get more. Thank you quest
    bars http://bitly.com/3C2tkMR quest bars

  69. Somebody necessarily assist to make severely articles I’d state.
    This is the very first time I frequented your web page and to this
    point? I amazed with the research you made to create this
    actual submit amazing. Great process! scoliosis surgery https://0401mm.tumblr.com/ scoliosis
    surgery

  70. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have bear in mind your stuff previous to and you are just too magnificent.
    I really like what you have acquired right here, really like what
    you are saying and the best way wherein you are saying it.
    You’re making it enjoyable and you still care for to stay it wise.
    I cant wait to learn much more from you. That is really a terrific site.
    cheap flights http://1704milesapart.tumblr.com/ cheap
    flights

  71. Normally I don’t read article on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very compelled me to try and do so! Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thank you, quite nice article.|

  72. Hey there, You have done a great job. I’ll certainly digg it and personally suggest to my friends. I’m sure they will be benefited from this web site.|

  73. I’m not sure exactly why but this web site is loading extremely slow for me. Is anyone else having this problem or is it a issue on my end? I’ll check back later on and see if the problem still exists.|

  74. of course like your web-site however you need to test the spelling
    on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling
    issues and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely
    come back again.

  75. I want to express my thanks to this writer for rescuing me from this particular circumstance. Just after scouting through the world wide web and seeing methods which are not pleasant, I believed my entire life was gone. Love Doll Blog

  76. I think everything said made a bunch of sense. However, think on this, suppose you composed a catchier title? I am not saying your content isn’t solid., but what if you added a title that makes people desire more? I mean BLOG_TITLE is kinda boring. You could peek at Yahoo’s home page and see how they create article headlines to grab people interested. You might add a video or a related pic or two to get people interested about everything’ve written. Just my opinion, it would make your website a little livelier.|

  77. Hi there! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this write-up to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!|

  78. Your style is unique compared to other folks I have read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll just bookmark this web site.|

  79. I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I come across a blog that’s both educative and amusing, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue is something that too few people are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy I came across this in my hunt for something regarding this.|

  80. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.|

  81. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.|

  82. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to figure out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.|

  83. Thanks for any other great post. Where else may anyone get that type of info in such an ideal means of writing? I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I am on the look for such info.|

  84. Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all people you really recognize what you are talking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally consult with my website =). We will have a link trade arrangement between us|

  85. I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up!
    I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back down the
    road. Many thanks

  86. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It
    truly useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid
    others like you aided me.

  87. It’s the best time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy.

    I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest
    you some interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I wish to read even more things about it!

  88. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your
    point. You clearly know what youre talking
    about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your site
    when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  89. Hi there, I found your web site by the use of Google whilst looking for
    a related matter, your website came up, it appears to be
    like good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Hello there, simply turned into alert to your weblog through Google,
    and located that it’s really informative. I’m gonna be careful for brussels.
    I will be grateful if you proceed this in future.
    A lot of people might be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!

  90. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish.

    nonetheless, you command get bought an nervousness over that you
    wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly
    again as exactly the same nearly a lot often inside case
    you shield this increase.

  91. Whats up are using WordPress for your site platform?

    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and
    set up my own. Do you need any html coding knowledge to make your own blog?
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  92. I think this is one of the most vital information for me.

    And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The
    site style is wonderful, the articles is really nice :
    D. Good job, cheers

  93. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout
    on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *